Parts of a Computer and Their Functions

Today we are going to talk about the parts of a computer and what they do. What follows is a list of parts that make up a computer: motherboard, processor, graphics card, RAM, hard drive, optical drive, fan, cooler, power supply, all of the cables, the monitor, the keyboard, the mouse, the monitor cable, the USB cord, the power cord, and the power outlet. You see, it’s not so hard to do a little research about the parts of a computer. In fact, it’s easy.

Over the years, the computer industry has become more and more competitive. In addition to trying to make a profit, IT companies are going to great lengths to attract customers. One of the most common ways to do so is to offer free software and hardware. For example, many computer hardware manufacturers include free games with their computer systems.

A computer is made of many parts working together to create something useful. When you look at the parts of a computer, you can see how they work together. This is shown in the image below. [Image Source: Howstuffworks]. Read more about parts of computer and their functions wikipedia and let us know what you think.

Understanding the elements and operations of a computer will assist you in comprehending all of the critical components that make up a computer.

If you want to learn more about computers, this is a wonderful place to start. It’s not only an excellent starting place, but it’s also interesting to know for the sake of curiosity.

Knowing what the component is is helpful, but we’ll go through the purpose of each one so you have a better idea.

Computer components and their functions

Here’s a comprehensive list of all the most common computer hardware components and peripherals.

1. The case of the computer

Parts of a Computer and Their Functions

This is the section of the computer that houses all of the internal components.

It’s typically built to facilitate installing a motherboard, cables, and drives as simple as possible. Some are so well-designed that it’s simple to keep everything looking neat and attractive.

Cases come in a variety of forms and sizes to fit various computer components and meet the requirements of consumers.

The design components may range from simple to highly detailed. You may buy a simple grey case or one with colorful lights all over it to make it seem amazing.

The quality of cases, like most things, varies. You may have them manufactured out of low-cost metals or high-quality materials to ensure a long-lasting design.

The following is a list of computer case sizes (also known as form factor):

  • Mini ITX motherboards are supported because of the tiny form factor.
  • Micro ATX motherboards are supported because of the small form factor.
  • Supports common ATX motherboards in a standard form factor.
  • Supports ATX and XL-ATX motherboards with larger form factors.

2. Mainboard


The motherboard is the primary board that is inserted into the computer casing directly. Everything else, including additional cards, plugs directly into the motherboard, thus the name.

It connects the CPU, RAM, disks, power supply, and other components.

Its job is to connect all of the components so that they may communicate and work together.

A decent motherboard has a lot of different connection possibilities. It also has the smallest number of bottlenecks. This enables all of the components to work together effectively and to their full capacity, just as they were intended.

Obviously, as the physical size of the device shrinks, connection and functionality become limited.

The following are the different sizes of motherboards:

Motherboard Dimensions
Pico-ITX 100mm x 72mm | 3.9 inch × 2.9 inch
Nano-ITX 120mm × 120mm | 4.7 inch x 4.7 inch
Mini-ITX 170mm × 170mm | 6.7 inch x 6.7 inch
Micro-ATX 244mm × 244mm | 9.6 inch x 9.6 inch
Standard-ATX 305mm x 244mm | 12 inch x 9.6 inch
XL-ATX 343mm x 262mm | 13.5 inch x 10.3 inch | EVGA 345mm x 262mm | 13.58 inch x 10.31 inch | Gigabyte Micro-Star: 345mm x 264mm | 13.6 inch x 10.4 inch

3. Central Processing Unit (CPU)


The CPU may be thought of as a computer’s brain. On a computational level, it processes all of the data.

It reads data from the RAM and processes it in order for the computer to execute the tasks it is programmed to do.

To attach it onto the motherboard, it is typically placed in a socket that uses a lever or a latch with a hinged plate with a cut out in the middle.

It has a lot of copper pads beneath it for the socket contacts to make electrical contact with.

CPUs may be connected to the motherboard in a variety of ways.

Here are a few such examples:

  • Although a more desired connector, ZIF (Zero Insertion Force) sockets are mainly found on older computer motherboards. The processor pins are clamped by a lever-operated device.
  • PGA (Pin Grid Array): This socket is similar to a ZIF socket but has a different pin pitch and pin count.
  • LGA (Land Grid Array): This is the most popular kind of motherboard nowadays. The processor is clamped down by a levered hinged plate with a central cut-out.
  • The CPU is soldered directly onto the motherboard in a BGA (Ball Grid Array) configuration. As a result, it is not a user-swappable component. It is vulnerable to a lack of connection.

A CPU produces a lot of heat, particularly when it’s under a lot of stress.

It will run significantly hotter if the clock speed is increased to make it run quicker. This is referred to as overclocking.

This is why a heatsink and fan assembly are needed to take heat away from the CPU and transfer it on thin metal sheets or fins for cooling.

Processors come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. Intel, AMD, and NVidia are the top three computer manufacturers.

RAM stands for Random Access Memory.

computer ram modules

RAM is a kind of data storage that allows for quick read and write operations. RAM is also volatile, which means that if the power goes off, it loses all of the data it has stored.

The RAM stores data so that the CPU can process it. The speed of a computer’s RAM is a major factor in its overall performance.

It fits into a lengthy slot that contains contacts on both sides.

Just like a CPU, it has a clock speed. As a result, it may be overclocked to provide performance that exceeds the original specification.

A heat spreader is included with certain RAM modules. It aids in the dissipation of heat generated by individual memory ICs, keeping them cooler.

RAM has developed in the same way that every other component has. DDR (Double Data Rate) SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) memory is often utilized in motherboards.

Graphics Card No. 5

computer graphics card

The data from the motherboard is processed by a graphics card, which then delivers the necessary information to the monitor for display.

It may do so by connecting through HDMI, DisplayPort, DVI, or VGA.

A video card or a display card are other terms for a graphics card.

It relieves the main CPU of the load of video processing. This significantly improves the performance of a computer.

Fans are virtually a given for a gaming graphics card due to the high processing needs.

A graphics card is connected to the motherboard through a PCI Express (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express) slot. It’s a serial extension bus slot that can handle a lot of data in both ways.

A GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) is the primary component of a graphics card that needs cooling.

Although a GPU is slower than a CPU, it is built to do the mathematical calculations needed for video rendering.

The amount of memory on the card varies depending on the design chosen by the manufacturer.

GDDR (Graphics Double Data Rate) SDRAM is used in graphics cards, and it is specifically intended to improve graphics performance.

In comparison to standard DDR memory, GDDR is designed to handle a greater bandwidth.

Sound Card No. 6

sound card

The sound chip integrated into the motherboard is often utilized for audio output.

However, if you are a sound aficionado or like more detailed audio when gaming, you may want to consider using a sound card.

Sound cards may be plugged into a computer in a variety of ways. USB, PCI slot, or PCI Express x 1 slot are all options.

The audio processing is done entirely by a sound processing chip on the card, which is typically not a particularly powerful CPU.

A sound card may connect to different audio devices in a variety of ways.

Optical audio, 1/4 inch jack, and RCA connections are just a few examples.

Hard Drive No. 7

mechanical hard drive

In most computers, there is a hard disk. The data is typically stored on a mechanical drive.

It may be used as a boot drive to execute the operating system in addition to storing data.

An operating system, such as Microsoft Windows, is a software program that makes a computer usable. The physical fragility of a mechanical drive is its most serious flaw.

A single bump in the incorrect direction may wipe out a whole drive. A mechanical hard disk has one or more platters that rotate at speeds ranging from 5200 to 10000 RPM (revolutions per minute).

The read and write heads are separated from the platter by just 0.002 (51 micro M) inches.

This provides you a sense of the physical constraints imposed by its delicate nature.

On the platter, little regions may be placed to represent a 1 or a 0. It may be modified by modifying the material with the drive head to indicate the proper magnetic value.

Solid State Drive (SSD) is an acronym for “solid state drive.”

m.2 and sata ssd

A solid-state drive (SSD) is a kind of hard disk that does not have any moving components. It’s made up of a bank of flash memory that can store a significant quantity of data.

Despite the fact that SSDs are becoming bigger all the time, they are still not cost-effective for storing huge quantities of data.

The cost per gigabyte on a mechanical drive is lower.

The SSD, on the other hand, is a high-performance drive. It’s quick and can’t be harmed as quickly by being dropped or receiving a few hits.

That’s why, when it comes to portable laptops, I always prefer SSDs. In our previous post, we discuss whether or not SSDs are worthwhile.

PSU stands for Power Supply Unit.

computer power supply

Inside the computer casing is a power supply. This transforms the AC mains supply from the wall socket into the proper DC voltages for all of the computer’s components.

The following voltages are supplied by a computer power supply:

  • +3.3v: This is the voltage that the motherboard receives.
  • +5V: This is the voltage that the motherboard and other internal components get.
  • +12V: This is the voltage that the motherboard and other internal components get.
  • -12V: This is the voltage that the motherboard receives.

Power supplies come in a variety of wattage levels. The greater the wattage, the more electrical current can be sent to components that need it.

The greater the Watts, the more expensive the power source is going to be.

A cooling fan is also included with a power supply. When the power supply is exposed to higher loads, this helps all of the internal components remain cool.

If you’d want to learn more about power supplies and how long they last, I’ve published an essay on it.

10. Keep an eye on things.

computer monitor with a blank screen

The graphics data supplied from the computer’s graphics card is displayed on a monitor.

On the market, there are many different kinds of monitors. A LED-backlit LCD display is the most popular.

There are also a number of sizes and aspect ratios to choose from. The aspect ratio is the proportion of height to width.

A 16:9 aspect ratio display, for example, will have 16 parts wide and 9 parts tall.

Curved displays are also available, although they are more costly.

Monitors must also have a quick reaction time to keep up with the high demands necessary to minimize delays in user input for gaming.

Keyboard No. 11

computer keyboard

One of the ways to interact with a computer is to use a keyboard. When you hit a key on the keyboard, a tiny amount of data is sent to the computer to inform it the key you pushed.

This data may be used by the computer in a variety of ways. A command or a character that may be used in a document is an example.

Keyboards are divided into two categories. Types include mechanical and membrane.

12. Mouse

computer mouse

A mouse enables the user to move a pointer on the monitor and interact with the computer in a more natural way.

These days, mice feature more than the standard three buttons.

The three primary buttons, on the other hand, enable the user to choose, grasp, scroll, and access other menus and settings.

A mouse for a computer may be either connected or wireless. The latter, of course, necessitates the use of batteries.

Today’s optical mouse enable for very precise accuracy and smooth movement.

External peripherals that are often used

Here are a few typical peripherals that may be attached to a computer to increase its functionality.


computer printer

A printer can print an image that has been transmitted from a computer onto a piece of paper.

It does this by taking the data from the computer and depositing toner or ink in a controlled and precise way to create the picture.



A scanner can scan anything on paper to create a digital picture that is identical to the original.

This is also a great way to save tangible photographs that you’d want to save.

When a photograph is saved digitally, it will not deteriorate over time like a real photograph does.

Speakers for Computers

Parts of a Computer and Their Functions 1

Computer speakers may be connected to the sound card in the computer’s back.

Another option is to connect them using a monitor with built-in speakers.

The sound quality of a monitor’s speakers is often low. That is why the majority of individuals purchase a set of computer speakers to keep on their desk.

Certain sound cards can even support a 7.1 surround speaker system.

This may make gaming, listening to music, or watching a movie more enjoyable.


That’s all there is to know about a computer’s fundamental components. All of these components are necessary for a computer to operate.

Once you have a rudimentary understanding of these components, it won’t be long until you’re repairing or building computers on your own.

From here, I suggest reading about how to figure out which computer components are compatible with one another.

There are a lot of things that make up the computer that we use everyday. Today, we’re going to learn a little bit about those things so you’ll know a little more about how things work. In the parts of a computer section, let’s learn about the monitor and the keyboard.. Read more about computer hardware parts and functions pdf and let us know what you think.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the 10 components of a computer?

The 10 components of a computer are the CPU, RAM, motherboard, power supply, hard drive, graphics card, monitor, mouse and keyboard.

What are the 3 main parts of a computer and their functions?

The three main parts of a computer are the motherboard, processor, and RAM. The motherboard is where all the other components connect to, such as the processor and RAM. It also houses the power supply and various ports for connecting devices. The processor is what processes information in a computer. It does this by performing calculations on data that it receives from the RAM or input from another device. Lastly, RAM is short for random access memory which stores temporary data while a computer is running so that

What are the 12 parts of a computer?

The 12 parts of a computer are the motherboard, processor, RAM, hard drive, power supply unit, graphics card, case fan, keyboard and mouse.

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